Faire cohabiter un NAS Synology et un serveur Windows sur un onduleur APC

Aujourd’hui j’ai reçu mon nouveau jouet : un onduleur tout neuf, un APC Back-UPS BX950UI. Et il possède plusieurs avantages :

  • AVR (Automatic Voltage Regulation)
  • Management USB
  • 950 VA
  • 6 prises IEC sur batterie
  • Son prix : entre 89€ et 115€ selon les revendeurs

APC BX950UI

Maintenant mon NAS (HP N54L sur Xpenology) et mon DC / serveur de virtualisation (Acer Veriton core i7 sur Windows Server 2012r2), ainsi que ma box Internet, mes switchs et mon AP WiFI principal (AP Ubiquiti UniFi), ne craignent plus les chutes de tensions, les surtensions et les coupures de courant.

Cependant, un problème se pose : comment faire en sorte que le NAS et le DC s’éteignent lorsque le niveau de charge de la batterie de l’onduleur est trop faible ?

En effet, l’onduleur ne possède qu’un seul port USB et ne peut donc être relié qu’à une seule machine. Mais une solution existe, elle se nomme apcupsd !!! Il s’agit d’un daemon qui remplace le logiciel fourni par APC et qui permet à plusieurs machines de monitorer le même onduleur (et donc de s’éteindre lorsque la machine maître le demande).

J’ai fait le choix de connecter mon onduleur en USB à mon DC et donc de faire en sorte que mon NAS s’éteigne lorsque le DC le demande. En résumé, la machine maître est le DC (sous Windows) et le NAS est une machine esclave (sous DSM, basé sur Debian).

Mettre en place apcupsd sur Windows

Il faut tout d’abord télécharger et installer apcupsd sur sa machine sous Windows. L’installation se fait via un setup automatisé et est assez rapide.

Une fois le logiciel installé et le service activé, il faut configurer apcupsd grâce au fichier apcupsd.conf situé dans le dossier C:\apcupsd\etc\apcupsd\. Certains éléments sont facultatifs, mais d’autres sont absolument nécessaires, en particulier :

  • NETSERVER
  • NISIP
  • NISPORT

Ces trois paramètres permettent de configurer le Network Information Server grâce auquel nos machines esclaves dialogueront avec la machine maître. Saisissez donc ces renseignements avec attention. (Pensez à ouvrir dans votre firewall le NISPORT).

A vous ensuite de choisir la configuration que vous désirez concernant les paramètres d’extinction, etc. …

Voici à quoi ressemble mon fichier apcupsd.conf :

## apcupsd.conf v1.1 ##
#
# for apcupsd release 3.14.13 – win32-mingw
#
# « apcupsd » POSIX config file

#
# Note that the apcupsd daemon must be restarted in order for changes to
# this configuration file to become active.
#

#
# ========= General configuration parameters ============
#

# UPSNAME xxx
# Use this to give your UPS a name in log files and such. This
# is particulary useful if you have multiple UPSes. This does not
# set the EEPROM. It should be 8 characters or less.
UPSNAME Serveurs

# UPSCABLE <cable>
# Defines the type of cable connecting the UPS to your computer.
#
# Possible generic choices for <cable> are:
# simple, smart, ether, usb
#
# Or a specific cable model number may be used:
# 940-0119A, 940-0127A, 940-0128A, 940-0020B,
# 940-0020C, 940-0023A, 940-0024B, 940-0024C,
# 940-1524C, 940-0024G, 940-0095A, 940-0095B,
# 940-0095C, 940-0625A, M-04-02-2000
#
UPSCABLE usb

# To get apcupsd to work, in addition to defining the cable
# above, you must also define a UPSTYPE, which corresponds to
# the type of UPS you have (see the Description for more details).
# You must also specify a DEVICE, sometimes referred to as a port.
# For USB UPSes, please leave the DEVICE directive blank. For
# other UPS types, you must specify an appropriate port or address.
#
# UPSTYPE DEVICE Description
# apcsmart COMx Newer serial character device, appropriate for
# SmartUPS models using a serial cable (not USB).
# Can be COM1, COM2, etc.
#
# usb <BLANK> Most new UPSes are USB. A blank DEVICE
# setting enables autodetection, which is
# the best choice for most installations.
#
# net hostname:port Network link to a master apcupsd through apcupsd’s
# Network Information Server. This is used if the
# UPS powering your computer is connected to a
# different computer for monitoring.
#
# snmp hostname:port:vendor:community
# SNMP network link to an SNMP-enabled UPS device.
# Hostname is the ip address or hostname of the UPS
# on the network. Vendor can be can be « APC » or
# « APC_NOTRAP ». « APC_NOTRAP » will disable SNMP trap
# catching; you usually want « APC ». Port is usually
# 161. Community is usually « private ».
#
# netsnmp hostname:port:vendor:community
# OBSOLETE
# Same as SNMP above but requires use of the
# net-snmp library. Unless you have a specific need
# for this old driver, you should use ‘snmp’ instead.
#
# dumb COMx Old serial character device for use with
# simple-signaling UPSes. Can be COM1, COM2, etc.
#
# pcnet ipaddr:username:passphrase
# PowerChute Network Shutdown protocol which can be
# used as an alternative to SNMP with the AP9617
# family of smart slot cards.ipaddr is the IP
# address of the UPS mgmtcard. username and
# passphrase are the credentials for which the card
# has been configured.
#
# modbus COMx Serial device for use with newest SmartUPS models
# supporting the MODBUS protocol.
# modbus <BLANK> Leave the DEVICE setting blank for MODBUS over USB
# or set to the serial number of the UPS to ensure
# that apcupsd binds to that particular unit
# (helpful if you have more than one USB UPS).
#
UPSTYPE usb
DEVICE

# POLLTIME <int>
# Interval (in seconds) at which apcupsd polls the UPS for status. This
# setting applies both to directly-attached UPSes (UPSTYPE apcsmart, usb,
# dumb) and networked UPSes (UPSTYPE net, snmp). Lowering this setting
# will improve apcupsd’s responsiveness to certain events at the cost of
# higher CPU utilization. The default of 60 is appropriate for most
# situations.
#POLLTIME 60

# SCRIPTDIR <path to script directory>
# Directory in which apccontrol and event scripts are located.
SCRIPTDIR c:\apcupsd\etc\apcupsd

# PWRFAILDIR <path to powerfail directory>
# Directory in which to write the powerfail flag file. This file
# is created when apcupsd initiates a system shutdown and is
# checked in the OS halt scripts to determine if a killpower
# (turning off UPS output power) is required.
PWRFAILDIR c:\apcupsd\etc\apcupsd

# NOLOGINDIR <path to nologin directory>
# Directory in which to write the nologin file. The existence
# of this flag file tells the OS to disallow new logins.
NOLOGINDIR c:\apcupsd\etc\apcupsd
#
# ======== Configuration parameters used during power failures ==========
#

# The ONBATTERYDELAY is the time in seconds from when a power failure
# is detected until we react to it with an onbattery event.
#
# This means that, apccontrol will be called with the powerout argument
# immediately when a power failure is detected. However, the
# onbattery argument is passed to apccontrol only after the
# ONBATTERYDELAY time. If you don’t want to be annoyed by short
# powerfailures, make sure that apccontrol powerout does nothing
# i.e. comment out the wall.
ONBATTERYDELAY 6

#
# Note: BATTERYLEVEL, MINUTES, and TIMEOUT work in conjunction, so
# the first that occurs will cause the initation of a shutdown.
#

# If during a power failure, the remaining battery percentage
# (as reported by the UPS) is below or equal to BATTERYLEVEL,
# apcupsd will initiate a system shutdown.
BATTERYLEVEL 5

# If during a power failure, the remaining runtime in minutes
# (as calculated internally by the UPS) is below or equal to MINUTES,
# apcupsd, will initiate a system shutdown.
MINUTES 3

# If during a power failure, the UPS has run on batteries for TIMEOUT
# many seconds or longer, apcupsd will initiate a system shutdown.
# A value of 0 disables this timer.
#
# Note, if you have a Smart UPS, you will most likely want to disable
# this timer by setting it to zero. That way, you UPS will continue
# on batteries until either the % charge remaing drops to or below BATTERYLEVEL,
# or the remaining battery runtime drops to or below MINUTES. Of course,
# if you are testing, setting this to 60 causes a quick system shutdown
# if you pull the power plug.
# If you have an older dumb UPS, you will want to set this to less than
# the time you know you can run on batteries.
TIMEOUT 0

# Time in seconds between annoying users to signoff prior to
# system shutdown. 0 disables.
ANNOY 300

# Initial delay after power failure before warning users to get
# off the system.
ANNOYDELAY 60

# The condition which determines when users are prevented from
# logging in during a power failure.
# NOLOGON <string> [ disable | timeout | percent | minutes | always ]
NOLOGON disable

# If KILLDELAY is non-zero, apcupsd will continue running after a
# shutdown has been requested, and after the specified time in
# seconds attempt to kill the power. This is for use on systems
# where apcupsd cannot regain control after a shutdown.
# KILLDELAY <seconds> 0 disables
KILLDELAY 0

#
# ==== Configuration statements for Network Information Server ====
#

# NETSERVER [ on | off ] on enables, off disables the network
# information server. If netstatus is on, a network information
# server process will be started for serving the STATUS and
# EVENT data over the network (used by CGI programs).
NETSERVER on

# NISIP <dotted notation ip address>
# IP address on which NIS server will listen for incoming connections.
# This is useful if your server is multi-homed (has more than one
# network interface and IP address). Default value is 0.0.0.0 which
# means any incoming request will be serviced. Alternatively, you can
# configure this setting to any specific IP address of your server and
# NIS will listen for connections only on that interface. Use the
# loopback address (127.0.0.1) to accept connections only from the
# local machine.
NISIP 0.0.0.0

# NISPORT <port> default is 3551 as registered with the IANA
# port to use for sending STATUS and EVENTS data over the network.
# It is not used unless NETSERVER is on. If you change this port,
# you will need to change the corresponding value in the cgi directory
# and rebuild the cgi programs.
NISPORT 3551

# If you want the last few EVENTS to be available over the network
# by the network information server, you must define an EVENTSFILE.
EVENTSFILE c:\apcupsd\etc\apcupsd\apcupsd.events

# EVENTSFILEMAX <kilobytes>
# By default, the size of the EVENTSFILE will be not be allowed to exceed
# 10 kilobytes. When the file grows beyond this limit, older EVENTS will
# be removed from the beginning of the file (first in first out). The
# parameter EVENTSFILEMAX can be set to a different kilobyte value, or set
# to zero to allow the EVENTSFILE to grow without limit.
EVENTSFILEMAX 10

#
# ========== Configuration statements used if sharing =============
# a UPS with more than one machine

#
# Remaining items are for ShareUPS (APC expansion card) ONLY
#

# UPSCLASS [ standalone | shareslave | sharemaster ]
# Normally standalone unless you share an UPS using an APC ShareUPS
# card.
UPSCLASS standalone

# UPSMODE [ disable | share ]
# Normally disable unless you share an UPS using an APC ShareUPS card.
UPSMODE disable

#
# ===== Configuration statements to control apcupsd system logging ========
#

# Time interval in seconds between writing the STATUS file; 0 disables
STATTIME 0

# Location of STATUS file (written to only if STATTIME is non-zero)
STATFILE c:\apcupsd\etc\apcupsd\apcupsd.status

# LOGSTATS [ on | off ] on enables, off disables
# Note! This generates a lot of output, so if
# you turn this on, be sure that the
# file defined in syslog.conf for LOG_NOTICE is a named pipe.
# You probably do not want this on.
LOGSTATS off

# Time interval in seconds between writing the DATA records to
# the log file. 0 disables.
DATATIME 0

# FACILITY defines the logging facility (class) for logging to syslog.
# If not specified, it defaults to « daemon ». This is useful
# if you want to separate the data logged by apcupsd from other
# programs.
#FACILITY DAEMON

#
# ========== Configuration statements used in updating the UPS EPROM =========
#

#
# These statements are used only by apctest when choosing « Set EEPROM with conf
# file values » from the EEPROM menu. THESE STATEMENTS HAVE NO EFFECT ON APCUPSD.
#

# UPS name, max 8 characters
#UPSNAME UPS_IDEN

# Battery date – 8 characters
#BATTDATE mm/dd/yy

# Sensitivity to line voltage quality (H cause faster transfer to batteries)
# SENSITIVITY H M L (default = H)
#SENSITIVITY H

# UPS delay after power return (seconds)
# WAKEUP 000 060 180 300 (default = 0)
#WAKEUP 60

# UPS Grace period after request to power off (seconds)
# SLEEP 020 180 300 600 (default = 20)
#SLEEP 180

# Low line voltage causing transfer to batteries
# The permitted values depend on your model as defined by last letter
# of FIRMWARE or APCMODEL. Some representative values are:
# D 106 103 100 097
# M 177 172 168 182
# A 092 090 088 086
# I 208 204 200 196 (default = 0 => not valid)
#LOTRANSFER 208

# High line voltage causing transfer to batteries
# The permitted values depend on your model as defined by last letter
# of FIRMWARE or APCMODEL. Some representative values are:
# D 127 130 133 136
# M 229 234 239 224
# A 108 110 112 114
# I 253 257 261 265 (default = 0 => not valid)
#HITRANSFER 253

# Battery charge needed to restore power
# RETURNCHARGE 00 15 50 90 (default = 15)
#RETURNCHARGE 15

# Alarm delay
# 0 = zero delay after pwr fail, T = power fail + 30 sec, L = low battery, N = never
# BEEPSTATE 0 T L N (default = 0)
#BEEPSTATE T

# Low battery warning delay in minutes
# LOWBATT 02 05 07 10 (default = 02)
#LOWBATT 2

# UPS Output voltage when running on batteries
# The permitted values depend on your model as defined by last letter
# of FIRMWARE or APCMODEL. Some representative values are:
# D 115
# M 208
# A 100
# I 230 240 220 225 (default = 0 => not valid)
#OUTPUTVOLTS 230

# Self test interval in hours 336=2 weeks, 168=1 week, ON=at power on
# SELFTEST 336 168 ON OFF (default = 336)
#SELFTEST 336

Relancez le service Windows et lancez l’application APCtray. Si tout est OK, vous devriez avoir cette icône dans la barre des tâches :

apctray

Et lorsque vous faites un clique-droit dessus et choisissez Status, vous devriez avoir une fenêtre qui ressemble à celle-ci :

status

Installer et configurer apcupsd sur Synology

Activer le SSH et installer ipkg

Pour activer SSH, il faut aller dans le Panneau de configuration de DSM puis dans Terminal et SNMP.

SSH

 

Il faut alors installer ipkg en passant par les dépôts additionnels.

Commencez par ajouter CPHUB à vos sources de paquets supplémentaires. Rendez-vous dans le Centre de paquets de DSM puis cliquez sur Paramètres. Allez ensuite dans Sources de paquets et ajoutez http://www.cphub.net.

CPHUB

Maintenant, dans le centre de paquets, allez dans la partie Communauté et installez IPKGui.

IPKGUI

 

Installer et configurer apcupsd sur Synology

Connectez-vous à votre Synology en SSH (avec PuTTy par exemple) en root.

root@ip.de.votre.nas

Installez apcupsd

ipkg install apcupsd

Rendez-vous dans le dossier d’installation de apcupsd

cd /opt/etc/apcupsd

Modifiez le fichier apcupsd.conf

vi apcupsd.conf

Voici à quoi ressemble mon fichier apcupsd.conf sur mon Synology

## apcupsd.conf v1.1 ##
UPSCABLE ether
UPSTYPE net
LOCKFILE /opt/var/lock
DEVICE 192.168.1.5:3551
UPSCLASS standalone
UPSMODE disable
POLLTIME 10

Lancez le daemon.

/opt/sbin/apcupsd

Testez l’accès au NIS en récupérant le statut de l’onduleur.

apcaccess status

Si vous récupérez le statut de l’onduleur, votre configuration est OK, il ne vous reste plus qu’à lancer le daemon au démarrage du NAS.

Voilà, votre NAS et votre machine maître sont prêts à affronter les coupures de courant.

A propos

Technophile et futur motard, je me lance dans la création de vlogs autour de la moto et des accessoires (Hi-Tech en particulier).

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  • Bon article, j’ai prévu d’acheter un onduleur dans les mois à venir, je garde ce tuto sous le coude !